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城市中的绿洲(雨水花园设计典范)——唐纳德溪水公园 发布者: Admin 发布时间:2017-08-23 10:26:57 点击量:
  
       
     随着城市在全球范围内的扩展,诸如像森林、草地和湿地等自然环境遭到蚕食和破坏,纯粹自然的环境已经不复存在。然而由于工业转型留下来的废弃地却为我们通过“设计生态”的方法来创造“人工自然” 的环境提供了机遇。美国波特兰的唐纳德溪水公园(Tanner Springs Park)就是这方面典范之一。





   
        唐纳德溪水公园位于波特兰的一个繁华街区,基地在被开发为工业用途之前原本是一块湿地,公园设计者以此为目标:设想用“现代的新技术来再现过去”,试图在这块工业废弃地上重现其湿地的渊源,并以水和湿地栖息地作为新公园的特色。公园设计充分利用了基地地形从南到北逐渐降低的特点,收集来自周边街道和铺地的雨水。种植的植物种类,从坡地的高处到低处的水池分布的变化,反应的是基地土壤含水量从干到湿的变化过程。收集到的雨水经过坡地上植物过滤带的层层吸收、过滤和净化,最终多余的雨水被释放到坡地下方的水池中。另外,公园在传统的湿地基础上,还被赋予了现代的元素:如横穿水池的曲桥和由象征波特兰往日城市肌理的旧铁轨所组成的波型艺术墙。这些艺术作品将场地与当地的文化历史紧密联系起来,人们能够从情感上与之产生共鸣,从而使他们对这块经历过改变的场地倍感亲切。





  基地的生态修复和重建不仅仅是为了怀旧和补偿,更重要的是创造为当今公众服务的新景观,在体现“地方特色”的同时还需要有“时代精神”。唐纳溪水公园充分展示了景观设计作为一种“人工自然”的生态介入,能够模仿自然特性和借用自然元素来构建人工化的生态新秩序,从而创造近乎自然条件、混合人类使用与自然特征的一个能行使功能的“人工自然”的新环境。(本文引自《雨水花园设计典范--唐纳德溪水公园》)



 
History
Part of a 1999 Pearl District plan, the park was originally named North Park Square, but was renamed in April 2005.
Originally, the park was to be designed by Maya Lin, but concerns about her large sculpture, called "Playground", worried Pearl District residents who did not want another child-friendly park only two blocks from Jamison Square.




Design
Connected to the busy Jamison Square two blocks away by a wooden boardwalk made of ipê, Tanner Springs Park is quiet and naturalistic, designed by Atelier Dreiseitl and GreenWorks PC.Stripping away the industrial cover helped reconnect the neighborhood with the pre-industrial wetlands, especially Tanner Creek, which ran through the area.The New York Times described it as "a sort of cross between an Italian piazza and a weedy urban wetland with lots of benches perched beside gently running streams."The waterscape was designed by architect Herbert Dreiseitl, who spent time perfecting the sound made by the rushing water.The park is planted with tall native grasses, and includes Oregon oak, red alder and bigleaf maple trees, salvaged in the region and planted as mature trees.
The east wall of the park is covered in an art installation, primarily composed of rail tracks recovered from the area placed vertically along the east wall. Portland Terminal Railroad donated the rails, recovered from the region. Some rails date back to 1898. Bullseye Glass, a local glass art company, supplied 99 translucent blue pieces of glass, which are interspersed in the rails. They were painted by Herbert Dreiseitl with scenes of indigenous animals.
 


Reception
After early damage to the pond's ecosystem, signs were placed to explicitly indicate pets are not allowed.
Some visitors consider the park a waste of money,while others appreciate the serenity that a pocket park can provide in the middle of the city.Still others participate in yoga in the park.
The park has been called a "beautiful little oasis",and architect Laurie Olin remarked:
I've heard some Portlanders are snippy about Dreiseitl's park, boutique ecology and all that. I like the concept, but I'm not crazy about the proportions, for instance, of the stair-step grass seats. I like the idea of recycling the railroad rails and the sense of memory, but they look nasty and scary and that you're going to hurt yourself. The walkways are too Uncle Wiggly to me, too cutesy. But that's one designer criticizing the other designer's cuffs and pockets. I'm not arguing with the raison d'etre.


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